Europol is the law enforcement agency of the European Union and assists Member States in preventing and combating serious international crime. The main task of Europol is to support and strengthen action by competent authorities of the Member States and their mutual cooperation in preventing and combating organised crime, terrorism and other forms of serious crime affecting two or more Member States.
The legal basis of Europol is Regulation (EU) 2016/794 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 May 2016 on the European Union Agency for Law Enforcement Cooperation (Europol).
The European Data Protection Supervisor is responsible for monitoring and ensuring the application of the provisions of the Europol-Regulation relating to the protection of fundamental rights and freedoms of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data by Europol, and for advising Europol as well as data subjects on all matters concerning the processing of personal data. Any data subject has the right to lodge a complaint with the European Data Protection Supervisor if he or she considers that the processing by Europol of personal data relating to him or her does not comply with this Regulation
The national supervisory authorities of the Member States have to monitor the permissibility of the transfer, the retrieval and the communication of personal data by the Member State to Europol and have to examine whether such transfer, retrieval or communication violates the rights of the data subjects concerned. Moreover, any person has the right to request the national supervisory authority of a Member State to verify the legality of any transfer or communication to Europol of data concerning him or her as well as the legality of access to those data by the Member State concerned.
Furthermore, the representatives of the national supervisory authorities of the Member States and the European Data Protection Supervisor form together a Cooperation Board. The main task of the Cooperation Board, which meets at least twice a year, is to discuss general policies and strategies of data protection supervision of Europol and the permissibility of the transfer, the retrieval and any communication of personal data by the Member States to Europol.